Recurrent and Familial Cases- ANE1
Most cases of ANE are isolated events and do not happen again. However, in some patients, the illness can re-occur and/or it can present itself in other family members. This type of ANE is called ANE1 or Infection-Induced Acute Encephalopathy-3 (IIAE3). It has been linked with mutations in the RANBP2 gene. The mutation of this gene has been detected in 75% of ANE family cases. However, the mutation in this gene is a risk factor in the occurrence of the disease and doesn’t imply that all individuals affected will develop ANE1. Half of them will suffer from ANE1 and half will be asymptomatic carriers. Additional genetic and environmental factors (viral infection) are also required for the disease to develop.